(Paper) PHP Interview Questions And Answers Set - 4

PHP Interview Questions And Answers Set - 4

 

So if md5() generates the most secure hash, why would you ever use the less secure crc32() and sha1()?
Crypto usage in PHP is simple, but that doesn?t mean it?s free. First off, depending on the data that you?re encrypting, you might have reasons to store a 32-bit value in the database instead of the 160-bit value to save on space. Second, the more secure the crypto is, the longer is the computation time to deliver the hash value. A high volume site might be significantly slowed down, if frequent md5() generation is required. 

How can we destroy the session, how can we unset the variable of a session?
session_unregister() - Unregister a global variable from the current session
session_unset() - Free all session variables

What are the different functions in sorting an array?
Sorting functions in PHP:
asort()
arsort()
ksort()
krsort()
uksort()
sort()
natsort()
rsort()

How can we know the count/number of elements of an array?
2 ways:
a) sizeof($array) - This function is an alias of count()
b) count($urarray) - This function returns the number of elements in an array.
Interestingly if you just pass a simple var instead of an array, count() will return 1.

How many ways we can pass the variable through the navigation between the pages?
At least 3 ways:

1. Put the variable into session in the first page, and get it back from session in the next page.
2. Put the variable into cookie in the first page, and get it back from the cookie in the next page.
3. Put the variable into a hidden form field, and get it back from the form in the next page.

What is the maximum length of a table name, a database name, or a field name in MySQL?
Database name: 64 characters
Table name: 64 characters
Column name: 64 characters

How many values can the SET function of MySQL take?
MySQL SET function can take zero or more values, but at the maximum it can take 64 values.

What are the other commands to know the structure of a table using MySQL commands except EXPLAIN command?
DESCRIBE table_name;

How can we find the number of rows in a table using MySQL?
Use this for MySQL

SELECT COUNT(*) FROM table_name;

What?s the difference between md5(), crc32() and sha1() crypto on PHP?
The major difference is the length of the hash generated. CRC32 is, evidently, 32 bits, while sha1() returns a 128 bit value, and md5() returns a 160 bit value. This is important when avoiding collisions.

How can we find the number of rows in a result set using PHP?
Here is how can you find the number of rows in a result set in PHP:

$result = mysql_query($any_valid_sql, $database_link);
$num_rows = mysql_num_rows($result);
echo "$num_rows rows found";

How many ways we can we find the current date using MySQL?
SELECT CURDATE();
SELECT CURRENT_DATE();
SELECT CURTIME();
SELECT CURRENT_TIME();

Give the syntax of GRANT commands?
The generic syntax for GRANT is as following

GRANT [rights] on [database] TO [username@hostname] IDENTIFIED BY [password]

Now rights can be:
a) ALL privilages
b) Combination of CREATE, DROP, SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE and DELETE etc.

We can grant rights on all databse by usingh *.* or some specific database by database.* or a specific table by database.table_name. 

Give the syntax of REVOKE commands?
The generic syntax for revoke is as following

REVOKE [rights] on [database] FROM [username@hostname]

Now rights can be:
a) ALL privileges
b) Combination of CREATE, DROP, SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE and DELETE etc.

We can grant rights on all database by using *.* or some specific database by database.* or a specific table by database.table_name.

What is the difference between CHAR and VARCHAR data types?
CHAR is a fixed length data type. CHAR(n) will take n characters of storage even if you enter less than n characters to that column. For example, "Hello!" will be stored as "Hello! " in CHAR(10) column.

VARCHAR is a variable length data type. VARCHAR(n) will take only the required storage for the actual number of characters entered to that column. For example, "Hello!" will be stored as "Hello!" in VARCHAR(10) column.

How can we encrypt and decrypt a data present in a mysql table using mysql?
AES_ENCRYPT() and AES_DECRYPT()

Will comparison of string "10" and integer 11 work in PHP?
Yes, internally PHP will cast everything to the integer type, so numbers 10 and 11 will be compared.

What is the functionality of MD5 function in PHP?
string md5(string)

It calculates the MD5 hash of a string. The hash is a 32-character hexadecimal number.

How can I load data from a text file into a table?
The MySQL provides a LOAD DATA INFILE command. You can load data from a file. Great tool but you need to make sure that:

a) Data must be delimited
b) Data fields must match table columns correctly

How can we know the number of days between two given dates using MySQL?
Use DATEDIFF()

SELECT DATEDIFF(NOW(),'2006-07-01');

How can we change the name of a column of a table?
This will change the name of column:

ALTER TABLE table_name CHANGE old_colm_name new_colm_name

How can we change the data type of a column of a table?
This will change the data type of a column:

ALTER TABLE table_name CHANGE colm_name same_colm_name [new data type]

What is the difference between GROUP BY and ORDER BY in SQL?
To sort a result, use an ORDER BY clause.
The most general way to satisfy a GROUP BY clause is to scan the whole table and create a new temporary table where all rows from each group are consecutive, and then use this temporary table to discover groups and apply aggregate functions (if any).
ORDER BY [col1],[col2],...[coln]; Tells DBMS according to what columns it should sort the result. If two rows will have the same value in col1 it will try to sort them according to col2 and so on.
GROUP BY [col1],[col2],...[coln]; Tells DBMS to group (aggregate) results with same value of column col1. You can use COUNT(col1), SUM(col1), AVG(col1) with it, if you want to count all items in group, sum all values or view average.

What is meant by MIME?
Answer 1:
MIME is Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions is an Internet standard for the format of e-mail. However browsers also uses MIME standard to transmit files. MIME has a header which is added to a beginning of the data. When browser sees such header it shows the data as it would be a file (for example image)
Some examples of MIME types:
audio/x-ms-wmp
image/png
application/x-shockwave-flash

Answer 2:
Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions.
WWW's ability to recognize and handle files of different types is largely dependent on the use of the MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions) standard. The standard provides for a system of registration of file types with information about the applications needed to process them. This information is incorporated into Web server and browser software, and enables the automatic recognition and display of registered file types. ?

How can we know that a session is started or not?
A session starts by session_start() function.
This session_start() is always declared in header portion. it always declares first. then we write session_register().

What are the differences between  mysql_fetch_array(),  mysql_fetch_object(),  mysql_fetch_row()?
Answer 1:
mysql_fetch_array() -> Fetch a result row as a combination of associative array and regular array.
mysql_fetch_object() -> Fetch a result row as an object.
mysql_fetch_row() -> Fetch a result set as a regular array().

Answer 2:
The difference between mysql_fetch_row() and mysql_fetch_array() is that the first returns the results in a numeric array ($row[0], $row[1], etc.), while the latter returns a the results an array containing both numeric and associative keys ($row['name'], $row['email'], etc.). mysql_fetch_object() returns an object ($row->name, $row->email, etc.).

If we login more than one browser windows at the same time with same user and after that we close one window, then is the session is exist to other windows or not? And if yes then why? If no then why?
Session depends on browser. If browser is closed then session is lost. The session data will be deleted after session time out. If connection is lost and you recreate connection, then session will continue in the browser.

What are the MySQL database files stored in system ?
Data is stored in name.myd
Table structure is stored in name.frm
Index is stored in name.myi

What is the difference between PHP4 and PHP5?
PHP4 cannot support oops concepts and Zend engine 1 is used.

PHP5 supports oops concepts and Zend engine 2 is used.
Error supporting is increased in PHP5.
XML and SQLLite will is increased in PHP5.

Can we use include(abc.PHP) two times in a PHP page makeit.PHP??
Yes we can include that many times we want, but here are some things to make sure of:
(including abc.PHP, the file names are case-sensitive)
there shouldn't be any duplicate function names, means there should not be functions or classes or variables with the same name in abc.PHP and makeit.php